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1. The Arno Motor Company of Coventry 1908-1916, by Damien Kimberley
2. The Beech on Wheels, by Derek Robinson and forum member Foxcote
3. A brief history of Saint Osburg's, in pictures, by Damien Kimberley
4. The Brough Superior, by Damien Kimberley
5. Coventry Volunteer Fire Brigade - Illustrated London News, Jan 4th 1862
6. Coventry's Great Flood - London Daily Graphic, 2nd January 1901
7. Coventry's Rich Heritage, by Pete Walters
8. Coventry, the Home of the Cycle Trade - 1886 magazine article
9. Coventry, the Silk Trade and the Horsfall family, by Ian West
10. D-Day and Monty's Staff Car, by Paul Maddocks
11. The Dragoon Cycle Company of Coventry, by Damien Kimberley
12. Edwin Brown, Victorian Animal Artist, by Stephen Catton
13. The First Tudor Feast, by Richard Ball
14. The Great Flood of December 1900, and the lost Bridges, by Damien Kimberley
15. Henry Cave, and the 'Lady' Autocar of 1899, by Damien Kimberley
16. Let's talk about Rex, by Damien Kimberley
17. The Lion Bicycle Company of Coventry & Wolverhampton 1877-1882, by Damien Kimberley
18. Miss Bashford, a Teacher's Tale, by Simon Shaw
19. Motor Panels (Coventry) Ltd, by Damien Kimberley
20. The New Bablake Schools - 1889 article
21. New Drinking Fountain at Coventry - 17 Sep 1859
22. Not Forgotten, the 1939 IRA bomb attack, by Simon Shaw
23. Phil Silvers Archival Museum, by Paul Maddocks
24. Proposal for St. Michael's Campanile c1890
25. Public Baths - The Building News, Jan 24th 1896
26. The Saint Joseph the Worker parish in Coventry, by Terence Richards - Part 1
27. The Saint Joseph the Worker parish in Coventry, by Terence Richards - Part 2
28. The Saint Joseph the Worker parish in Coventry, by Terence Richards - Part 3
29. A short history of Coventry's Theatres and Cinemas, by Bill Birch
30. Sixty Years of Cycling - 1897 magazine article
31. The sound that almost killed my Dad in the War!, by Paul Maddocks
32. The Tapestry and its Hidden Secret, by Paul Maddocks
33. Transport Museum pt.1 - How the Queen's 1977 visit sowed the seed, by Paul Maddocks
34. Transport Museum pt.2 - New Hales Street Entrance in 1985, by Paul Maddocks
35. Transport Museum pt.3 - Creating the Blitz Experience, by Paul Maddocks
36. Transport Museum pt.4 - Coventry's Land Speed Record Cars, by Paul Maddocks
37. Transport Museum pt.5 - The 1987 F.A. Cup Winners' Sky Blue Bus, by Paul Maddocks
38. Transport Museum pt.6 - The Royal Cars, by Paul Maddocks
39. What links a Spitfire's landing gear to a baby buggy? by Paul Maddocks
40. What links R2D2 to a Coventry Hydrogen/Electric cab company? by Paul Maddocks
41. Whitefriars Gatehouse and Toy Museum, by Paul Maddocks
42. WW1 and Wyley of Charterhouse, by Paul Maddocks
43. 1930s Austin's Monthly Magazine articles, by John Bailey Shelton MBE
44. Plan for the City Centre - The Architect and Building News, 21st March 1941

Let's talk about Rex, by Damien Kimberley

The Story of Rex and Rex-Acme.

Frederick William Allard
Frederick William Allard (1863-1843), former cycle world champion and founder of Allard cycle manufacturing business at Earlsdon.

The "Rex" story is a really quite a complicated one, so if you can, please do bear with me. The name emerged out of a couple of previous West Midlands concerns from the late Victorian era, and ended some 30 years later in almost a weird tangled web of take-overs and off-shoot companies - but still, I will attempt to dissect and reconstruct its history, whilst highlighting its place as significant early British motor pioneers.

Allard advert
Allard & Co. advert of early 1890s listing the full range of cycles.

One could well argue that the very foundations of Rex fell at the feet of a certain Frederick William Allard. Born at Northampton in 1863, by 1880 Allard was working at the Coventry Machinists Company (CMC), cycling from his home at Northampton to Coventry and back each day. As a keen cyclist, the weekly coverage of such miles clearly paid off, and by the age of 25 Allard had become a professional cycle racer, eventually rising to the rank of 'safety champion of the world'.

Off the back of his many successes and prize wins, in 1889 Allard formed his own cycle manufacturing firm as 'Allard & Company' at Moor Street, Earlsdon, Coventry, in partnership with ex-CMC colleagues Benjamin Done (b. 1854) and George Pilkington (b. 1861). Allard himself, it seems, did not stick around too long for some reason, selling off his part in the business in the November of the following year, most probably retaining certain royalties. He soon after became licensee of the Hare & Squirrel on Cow Lane, whilst Pilkington and Done further developed the Allard business, becoming a limited liability company by April 1891.

Following the departure of Benjamin Done about 1893, Pilkington's extended family stepped in to become major shareholders, and a new larger factory was erected on Providence Street, Earlsdon, in 1896. As reputable bicycle manufacturers, by 1899, Allard & Co., had exhibited two motor-powered 'Allard' tricycles at London's Agricultural Hall, and from that point onwards, pedal power was pretty much displaced by the firm in favour of motive power. In March 1902, Allard & Co., acquired the assets of the newly formed Birmingham Motor Manufacturing & Supply Company, of which had strong family ties to Allard co-founder George Pilkington - the only one of the founding three remaining. This firm built the first 'Rex' Motors at Earlsdon, and by June 1902 the title of the business changed to that of the Rex Motor Manufacturing Co., 'Rex' of course, being the Latin word for 'King'.

Allard motor
Allard & Co. produced their first motors from 1899, the first of which was a De Dion type tricycle.

William Williamson (b. 1873), who himself began at Allard & Co., in 1892, was given the managing director role of the firm, and initially, promoting themselves as the 'King of Motors', they were turning out some 4-5 machines per week. Cyril Owen (b. 1876) was given the role of sales manager, and Frederick William Barnes (b. 1867) as designer/draughtsman, and an impressive range of well-turned out motorised vehicles followed - chiefly in the form of varied sized cars, motor-bicycles, and forecars. However, out of all their products, it was the motorcycles that became their bread and butter, having been regular's at all national racing and reliability events, including the Isle of Man TT. From around 1905/06, motor cars suddenly became their focus - presumably because there was more money to be made - but it would be a decision they would possibly later regret.

1901 Rex advert
In 1901 the Allard firm was taken over by the Birmingham Motor Manufacturing & Supply Company Limited, and it was this firm that built and sold the first 'Rex' motors at Coventry, alongside 'Allard' models.

By this time, William's younger brother Harold Walter Williamson (b. 1879) was managing all Rex Sales, and often, the completion of sales was not without difficulty. In the summer of 1911, the company took legal proceedings against a wealthy provision importer of Beeston, Nottinghamshire, named Joseph Bostock. Bostock had visited the national motor show at Olympia the previous November, and had been struck by the appearance of a 15hp Rex motor car. Having paid a deposit on the £350 machine (around £28K now), a test drive was later arranged at Beeston, but following the unconvincing run whereby the car seized a number of times, Bostock unsurprisingly revoked on the purchase. Although the company were legally successful in Court, they were only awarded £25 with costs, and as a result, Rex made no more cars thereafter.

Incidents such as this must have caused frustration and upset back at the factory in terms of the blame game, both at ground and board level, and indeed after a boardroom bust up a few weeks later, the Williamson brothers had both resigned. Harold quickly obtained work in a similar vein at the Singer Co., and William, perhaps as a parting shot towards George Pilkington et al, set himself up as a motor manufacturer just a stone's throw from the Rex Works at Cromwell Street, under the title of the Williamson Motor Co., backed by his relations, the Douglas family of Bristol.

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1902 Rex advert
By June 1902, the firm had changed their title to that of the Rex Motor Manufacturing Co. Ltd.

The Rex concern, now mostly owned by the extended Pilkington family, regrouped and carried on with purpose, even enlarging the Earlsdon Works as a show of ambition. They continued to attend the national motor shows, yet only with regards to motorcycles, and by the 1913 show, they only exhibited one model - the Rex Sidette De Luxe motorcycle combination. This may just have brought a wry smile to the face of William Williamson, who also happened to be exhibiting at the show with a full range of his own Douglas-powered 'Williamson' machines.

By the time War was announced in August 1914, the Rex Motor Manufacturing Co., was in really bad shape. A meeting of creditors revealed that the business had never really recovered from investing too much time and money into a particular motorcar model all the way back in 1907, but had kept on going with the hope of turning things around. The universal opinion of the advisory committee, was a reconstruction scheme, and so in early 1915 a new company was incorporated, this time as the Coventry Acme Motor Co. Ltd, the 'Acme' part being of Greek origin, meaning something that's the very best it can be. The first directors were actually Arthur Pilkington (b. 1863), and William Pilkington Jnr (b. 1884), George's younger brother and nephew, respectively. The managing director role fell on the shoulders of former Rex-employee George Henry Hemingway (b. 1884), John Earnshaw (b. 1867) became his deputy, and the Irishman William John Robb (b. 1860) assisted with technical design.

Inevitably, a number of staff signed up for active service, yet the company were fortunate to obtain a large contract with the War department to keep them more than busy, turning out motor and lorry brake cams/blocks and gudgeon pins, and even supplying shell noses to the French government.

Motor-bicycles and forecars advert
The company quickly became known for their well-made motor-bicycles and forecars.
Motor-bicycles and sidecars advert
By 1912, motorcycles and sidecars were pretty much all the firm were making.
Acme combination
In 1915, the Rex business was relaunched as the Coventry Acme Motor Co., and for a very short time following WW1 produced both 'Rex' and 'Acme' machines. Pictured here is a very rare image of an Acme combination. (Image Morton's Media).

At the conclusion of War, the Coventry Acme directors decided to relaunch the famous 'Rex' brand, offering a new range of motorcycles whilst trading both as the Coventry Acme Motor Co., and the Rex Motor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Initially, they began by offering the 'Rex Model 77' motorcycle, but by 1920, they were offering motorcycles separately under both the 'Rex' and 'Acme' names. The very next year, just the Rex Motor Manufacturing Co. Ltd., appeared at Olympia, this time offering a range of 'Rex-Acme' machines, and then by 1922, things got more confusing. Again, only the Rex Company exhibited, but this time providing their address as St. Patricks Road, Coventry, rather than their familiar Earlsdon factory, offering 'Maxim' and 'King' bicycles, but also four 'Rex-Acme' motorcycles, powered by either JAP, Blackburne, or Barr & Stroud engines. So why the sudden change of address? Why were they now making bicycles again?

Well, the St. Patricks Road factory, actually belonged to the Hobart Cycle Co. Ltd., which had origins in Coventry going back to 1877. As well as cycles, they had also made motors from the turn of the century, but also acquired a few trade names along the way. They too exhibited at the 1922 Olympia Show with 'Hobart' cycles, but also motorcycles, and like the Rex-Acme machines, were powered by the same engines.

Clearly then, Hobart had at some point acquired a stake in Coventry Acme/Rex, and indeed by August 1923, George Hemmingway of the Coventry Acme Motor Co., held a meeting with all creditors regarding winding up the firm. The outcome was the launch of yet another concern, this time called Hobart Acme Motors Ltd., and at Olympia in the November of the same year, Hobart-Acme Motors exhibited, offering 'Hobart' cycles and motorcycles, 'Maxim', 'King' and 'Acme' cycles, and also 'Rex-Acme' motorcycles.

Rex-Acme sports bike advert
The first Rex-Acme machines were released about November 1921, and went on to make great gains on the racing circuit.
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Wal Handley
By far, their most successful racer was works rider Wal Handley (b. 1902), who saw great success at the Isle of Man TT. Sadly he died aged in 1941 when the aircraft he was piloting crashed shortly after take-off.

A fresh start then? Well not quite, as in April 1924, Hobart-Acme Motors Ltd was up for sale as a going concern, which included all the goodwill, trade names, stock, plant and machinery. The purchaser was a certain William Henry Fulford (b. 1862), the maker of 'Millford' sidecars with connections in Coventry's cycle trade going back to the late 1890s, and on moving the production of Rex-Acme machines to Stoney Stanton Road, he now had a factory making popular sidecars, reputable cycles, and a well-established motorcycle brand. It was a decent bit of business too, as in 1925, their competition manager/works rider Walter Handley (1902-1941) won both the Junior and Ultra-Lightweight events at the Isle of Man TT, and returned a local hero with his Rex-Acme machines, really helping to boost sales.

Fulford became the overall controller, with Tom Bramley (b. 1874 - ex-Coventry Challenge Co.) as managing director, Lawson Clarke (b. 1888) as works manager, and Walter Tunnercliffe (b. 1887) as chief motor engineer. They continued to exhibit at the annual show at Olympia each year, but by 1927 they ceased to show any cycles as, just like back in the early Rex days, board level disagreements flared up once again. The original pact made between Fulford and Bramley in 1924, was that Bramley would be paid a yearly salary of £1,000 for seven years, and eventually become overall owner, buying out Fulford' s shares. However, by 1926, Fulford, who also had a big stake in the coachbuilding firm of Hollick & Pratt, wanted out sooner because of another business proposition he had received. Bramley wasn't in a position to find the sum of money required, and so declined, by which Fulford reacted by offering Bramley new terms in his current role, which included a £400 per annum drop in salary. Bramley rejected the offer and resigned.

By 1929, only the Rex Motor Manufacturing Co. Ltd., appeared at Olympia, displaying no less than 14 Rex Acme machines. The following year it was announced that both Mills-Fulford and Rex would be present, yet at the very last minute, for whatever reason, neither showed up. That, it seems, was the beginning of the end, as neither attended Olympia in 1931, and there was no show staged in 1932. It did reconvene by 1933, however again, there was no sign of Mills-Fulford or Rex. Then out of the blue in 1934, Mills-Fulford reappeared with a range of 8 sidecars, yet significantly, a John T. Chaplin (b. 1903), a chartered accountant by profession, was given as the receiver of the firm, pretty much an indication of a clearance sale.

Mills-Fulford sidecars
Two examples of beautifully constructed sidecars as produced by Mills-Fulford of Coventry. Owner William Henry Fulford owned the 'Rex-Acme' business from 1924.

It was not until 1937 that Mills-Fulford Ltd., was eventually struck of the register at Companies House, most probably as this was the same year that William Henry Fulford died. The Rex Motor Manufacturing Co. Ltd., was actually struck off the year before, and Fulford's other concerns, Hobart, Maxim and Fulwell, all went in 1934. So although Mills-Fulford, Rex, and Hobart were all seen listed in the 1935 Coventry Trade Directory at Stoney Stanton Road, I can see no real evidence to suggest that any Rex-Acme machines were made after 1933, and I think cycle production ground to a halt soon after, and sidecars were certainly finished by 1936/37.

Rex-Acme cycles advert

So, what became of the original founders of this eventual tangled web of businesses and factories spanning some 45 years? Allard, Pilkington, and Done?

Not much is known about Benjamin Done. Like Allard he did not stick around for long at Allard & Co., and a couple of years later was instead in partnership with George Shuttleworth at Days Lane, Coventry, making cycle parts. After that, he's a really difficult one to track, but I think was largely Birmingham-based.

With regards to Fred Allard, he remained local and owned/ran a string of pubs in the city over the following decades including the Hare & Squirrel, the Peeping Tom, and the Market Vaults. He retired to nearby Burton Green in the 1930s, and sadly, in 1939 was the driver of a car of which blew a tyre and overturned resulting in the death of his wife. He himself died in 1943.

And finally, George Pilkington, who was really the one that made the Rex name famous, not to mention responsible for numerous design patents along the way. I think his overall connections to Rex ended at the beginning of the First World War, but he did later set up a motor transport business called G. Pilkington & Son. He became engaged in local politics from 1910 as a Liberal Councillor for the Hearsall Ward, and died at his home on Allesley Old Road in March 1921, leaving a widow and eight children.

And that's the complicated, yet I hope interesting, story of Rex. In terms of British motoring names, they weren't the biggest, and they certainly weren't the best known, but undeniably they were completely in the thick of it when looking back to the very early and innovative days of British motor manufacturing.

Damien Kimberley, January 2020.

For further information on Coventry's motor and cycles trades, please take a look at my three books on the subjects: Coventry's Motorcycle Heritage, Coventry's Motorcar Heritage, and Coventry's Bicycle Heritage.

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